Eyes Wide Shut: A Note to My Future Mediation Colleagues

As established mediators, we have a responsibility to constantly both reflect upon, and critically assess the existing state of mediation training. Not in an effort to discredit but rather, to inform ourselves and others with a view to always seeking to improve it.

There is a Clear Divisiveness! And, Mediation Training May Contribute to It.

Ideally, as family mediators, we want to avoid creating more issues than divorcing couples already present with. Unfortunately, I feel that, as professionals, we still have a long journey ahead. In today’s ADR context, there appears to be a great deal of confusion, for both the public and practitioners, as to who does what and who is best qualified to do the work of a “family mediator”. In Ontario, a few organizations, OAFM, FDRIO, ADRIO and FMC, have taken on the challenging task of developing accreditation standards. However, not every accredited mediator is treated or promoted equally in the field.

Intentionally or not, there is a clear distinction made between mediators who possess a law degree and those who have other degrees. This distinction, unfortunately only becomes evident at the commencement of mediation training and after the commitment of thousands of dollars to family mediation courses. It is my experience, also shared by many others, that the divisiveness intensifies even more upon completion of training, specifically when mediators go on to establish a private practice, assuming that that’s the goal of their pursuing mediation training.

Lawyers Teach Mediation…

The vast majority of trainers in the family mediation field are lawyers. This may be of concern for a few reasons. For one, the skills required to practice law are very different than those needed to practice mediation. As such, when teaching, there may be an unintentional altering of those skills promoted in the course outline.The legal background of some instructors may cause a training program to be biased and, therefore subtly (or not) steer learning away from its original direction and intention. In fact, the perception of bias alone may jeopardize the trainer-trainee relationship and, in turn, impact the attribution of a trainer’s competence. Without trust, admiration and inspiration, learning will inevitably be stunted.

Second, self-esteem and confidence in one’s ability may be either seriously compromised or incorrectly exaggerated. One example that comes to mind is the assertion made throughout dispute resolution courses that, even upon completion, those without legal background cannot/should not deal with the presented parties’ financials. This is interesting because outside of a recent 21-hour course, there are no such impositions for lawyers when addressing non-financial/non-legal issues. Simply put, one may purport that having a law degree equates with competency in all areas. This mindset does not only create a fundamental imbalance; it also sets a dangerous precedent. On one hand, it acts to inflate a lawyer’s confidence in skills they may not possess, such as developing child-focused parenting plans; understanding the underlying interplay of complex cognitive, emotional and psychological factors; managing emotions; recognizing and addressing mental health concerns; and, properly identifying and managing risk of abuse during and post-separation. On the other hand, it can serve to deflate the confidence of those who do not have a law degree and frighten them away from conducting what is called “comprehensive” family mediation, where all of the matters are supposedly dealt with in mediation.

It is then, not an accident nor a coincidence that, post-mediation training, the imbalance continues to intensify and, so, potentially affects the establishing of a lucrative practice, if that’s the goal! Lawyers have been primed to believe they have all the necessary skills and are given the green light to conduct comprehensive family mediation, whereas mediators with other than law degrees have been warned against doing so as if to suggest their skills are somehow inferior. And, so, despite having undergone similar training and accreditation process, some mediators are placed at a clear advantage while others are left with thousands of dollars in debt (on top of  frustration and confusion).

In her report, “Making Peace and Making Money: Economic Analysis of the Market for Mediators in Private Practice“, Urška Velikonja, a Teaching Fellow at Harvard University, points to trainers as having a responsibility to depict the realities of mediation practice to aspiring mediators:

The failure by mediation trainers to provide accurate information about opportunities to make money in mediation contributes to excess entry in the market for mediation services….[I]naccurate information about the availability of mediation jobs as well as overoptimism lead aspirant mediators to spend money on mediation training and starting a mediation practice, and incur opportunity costs by foregoing other career opportunities. Not only may the failure of mediation trainers to fully disclose the pros and cons of mediation practice and correct trainee misapprehensions be unethical, it also leads to socially inefficient outcomes. To correct this misallocation of resources, mediation training programs should disclose information about “the known opportunities, limits, and obstacles in mediation in mediation employment and professional practice opportunities.”

Skilled Mediators Are Overshadowed by Turf-Wars and Politics

In reality, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, for accredited family mediators who have other than law degrees to establish a successful practice. Why? Well, if only family mediators with a law degree can prepare financials and draft separation agreements, then there is no incentive for disputing couples to go anywhere else. And, how are family mediators without a law degree expected to promote their business: “Accredited Family Mediators Offering Some Mediation Services”? You can see how quickly this can become a highly frustrating exercise. Second, a large number of lawyers refuse to work with mediators who don’t have a law degree, deeming their work as sub-par.

Family mediation training is a good example of a design where learner-centricity is overshadowed by turf wars and politics. As it stands, its design greatly destabilizes the original core of ADR, pulling farther away from clients’ self-determinism and right to options. Without a doubt, it incorrectly promotes the conceptualization of mediation as an extension of the law model and/or a mere add-on to one’s law practice. Today, many lawyers feel OK including “family mediation” as one of their services, even when they don’t have any mediation training whatsoever. How come? For one, the Rules of Professional Conduct allow for anyone to be a mediator, with a minor caveat that they are to remain “neutral” and stay away from providing legal advice (pretty vague and subjective). And, second, the mediation field has established the ground for lawyers to be perceived as “superior” family mediators; this is not only evident by the language and materials used in coursework, but also by the difference in mediator fees (for example, some Ontario courts have a fee cap for family mediators who have other than law degree).

To date, there is no research suggesting a correlation between a particular professional or educational background and the success at being a mediator. Theoretically, anyone can put up a shingle and call themselves mediators. Same thing goes for mediation trainers. One does not need to have special qualifications or educational background to develop a mediation training. There are, however, a few “established” trainers who pretty much control this market; and a large number them also happen to be at the helm of mediation course accreditation. This raises a number of ethical dilemmas, but that topic is beyond the scope of this post. I am only referencing it because I feel it is an important piece, illustrative of a larger cycle of bias.

My fear, which I wrote about plenty, is still very much alive: lawyer-centricity is causing a shift away from the original intention of ADR by placing focus on systems rather than families’ needs. And, as we can see, much of the mediation training contributes to this.

Want to be a Family Mediator? CAVEAT EMPTOR

I am not suggesting that everyone who’s taking mediation training wants to make a career out of it! But, most mediation courses are being sold that way; and lots of people jump both feet in! Optimistic and energizing keywords are consistently inserted in marketing campaigns, creating the illusion that mediation training is a gateway to full-time employment or that second career. In reality, it’s a struggle to make a living out of it! Out of tens of thousands trainees, very few get to practice mediation and even fewer get to make mediation their full-time job. And, a large majority give up within two years to return to paying jobs. There are many contributing reasons:

  1. Trainers don’t fully disclose the obstacles of obtaining mediation work and so, many trainees discover these too late in the game. As Urška Velikonja puts it: “…the profession trains too many people for jobs that do not exist.”. At least, the trainers do make money!
  2. The training is heavily skewed towards lawyers: after all, most instructors are lawyers.
  3. It takes a lot more than a mediation training to be or become a successful mediator. Young graduates virtually don’t stand a chance to turn family mediation into a day-job. You would not, however, be able to read this very fine print anywhere.
  4. Gaining experience requires hands-on practice. Finding an established mediator to work with and teach you the ropes is not an easy task at all!

Ironically, the public does not really make any distinction between accredited family mediators and those not accredited.

Do not despair – Information is power! If family mediation is your field of choice, be wise and strategic! It’s not a regulated field; I am not saying it should be (that’s a whole different story)! Do your research on training, trainers and course materials. Ask critical questions about how you will achieve the course objectives and reflect on how those match your personal and professional goals. Call mediators in your community and ask about their experiences in the field. But, for the love of God, do not quit your day job – not just yet!

We’re not married. What happens to Canada Pension Plan benefits after we separate or one of us dies?

ANSWER

“The Canada Pension Plan(link is external) (CPP) is a type of pension plan that most workers and employers contribute to. You earn CPP credits as you work. When you retire or can’t work because of a disability, you can apply to get pension payments.

This is different from a pension plan your employer may have.

After separation

If you lived with your partner for at least one year, you can apply to Service Canada to have the CPP credits that you and your partner earned while living together added up and then divided evenly. This is sometimes called “dividing CPP credits”, a “credit split”, or a “Division of Unadjusted Pensionable Earnings”.

If you earned less than your partner, a credit split may help you qualify for a pension. If you already qualify for a pension, it might increase the amount of your pension.

You don’t need your partner’s permission to apply for a credit split. You have a right to split their CPP credits even if they don’t agree to it as long as you have lived together for at least one year. This is different from how you and your partner would divide other property and debts after you separate.

Time limits

You must apply for a credit split within 4 years after you and your common-law partner separate.

If your partner dies less than a year after you separated, a credit split can still be done as long as you apply within 4 years of your partner’s death.

Partners who are married and have lived together for at least one year can also apply for a credit split, but there are some different rules about when they can apply.

Survivor’s pension

If your partner made enough contributions to the CPP pension plan, you may be able to get another benefit called a CPP survivor’s pension. You may qualify if, at the time of your partner’s death:

  • you were married or had been living together for at least one year, and
  • you are at least 35 years old at the time of your partner’s death, or you are younger but have a disability or have dependent children living with you

If you were separated at the time of your partner’s death, you may still qualify if your partner did not live with a different common-law partner.

There is no time limit to apply. CPP gives you benefits for the months dating back to your partner’s death, but they won’t go back more than one year before the date you apply. ”

Source of Article: Steps to Justice

Conferenced-Out: Divorcing Families Need Help Outside of Conference Rooms!

Mediation is no longer something new. Ontarians however, don’t really know much about it and  when they do, the information has been somewhat distorted by the time it has gotten to them. As an accredited mediator, this troubles me!

With the exception of some great speakers, family mediators have yet to experience a sense of “quid pro quo” or professional fraternity when attending conferences. Those prominent names of 20+ years ago are the same gatekeepers entering today through the same revolving door. While current topics may have incorporated today’s “hottest buzzwords and phrases” (such as “access to justice”), at a macro level, not much has changed. The question still remains: what are the real benefits of attending conferences and how does it serve our public?  As an accredited mediator, this troubles me!

I have been on both sides: attending and organizing conferences. I have been vocal about the dire need for educating the public about mediation and its benefits; educating the lawyers on how to best support their clients through mediation; lobbying the government to allocate dollars to out-of-court mediation programs; and promoting mediation in an unified manner. And, yet, to date, someone seeking information about mediation, will get at least three different versions: one from mediators, another one from lawyers, and yet another one from our justice system. No one is taking responsibility. Sadly, political and personal agendas seem to be louder than people’s voices and families’ needs! As an accredited mediator, this troubles me!

And, for these reasons, I am all conferenced out!

I entered the mediation field with highest hopes: to help families overcome what could be a very traumatic experience; to guide people through what could be an extremely overwhelming process; and to instill a sense of hope in the health of their post-divorce reorganization! And… I can’t do this from a conference room!

Child Support Woes: Angelina Jolie & Brad Pitt Edition

Celebrity A-Listers Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt made headlines this week when Jolie filed court documents in Los Angeles, claiming that Pitt has paid “no meaningful child support since separation”. Jolie is requesting the Court to Order retro-active child support from the date of separation. The couple separated in September 2016 after two years of marriage; they have six children (biological and adopted) with ages ranging between 17 to 10.

CHILD SUPPORT IN ONTARIO – HOW DOES IT WORK?
The law requires all parents to financially support their dependent children. In most cases, the amount of child support is determined by the Federal Child Support Guidelines. These Guidelines say that child support is usually made up of:

  1. a basic monthly amount, called the table amount AND
  2. an amount for other expenses, called special & extraordinary expenses

Basic Amount/Table Amount
The “basic amount” (also known as the “table amount”) of child support, is a monthly amount of support paid to cover the child’s everyday expenses like clothes, food, and housing. This amount is based on the following factors:

  • the payor’s gross annual income;
  • the number of children they have to support and
  • the parenting schedule.

The Child Support Table is different for each province. If both parents live in Ontario, the Ontario table applies. If the child support payor lives outside of Ontario (but still in Canada), the Table for that province or territory applies.

Special & Extraordinary Expenses
According to the Federal Child Support Guidelines, parents must share certain expenses over and above the monthly table amount, proportionate to income. “Special expenses” are typically:

  • child care expenses;
  • Medical expenses not covered by OHIP or insurance;
  • Post-secondary education; and,
  • Extracurricular activities.

Extraordinary expenses are different from special expenses in that they are irregular in occurrence and quite large in expense (in comparison to the incomes of the parents). The expense must relate to the child’s special needs/talents, be in the child’s best interest and be reasonable, considering the parent’s incomes. Examples can include expenses for competitive sports and specialized educational classes.

In the case of Jolie/Pitt, according to reports, the estranged couple do not agree on child support. Pitt has stated, allegedly, that he has already made adequate child support payments, including an eight million-dollar ($8,000,000.00) loan to Jolie. Lawyers for Jolie argue that the loan was for housing costs, not child support, and that Pitt has been delinquent on payments since date of separation in 2016. Jolie is asking the Court to order Pitt pay child support, including retro-active payments.

WHAT IS RETRO-ACTIVE CHILD SUPPORT?
The law is clear that it is the child support payor’s obligation to ensure that he or she is paying the correct amount of child support. If a child support payor has under-paid or did not pay child support at all, the law allows the child-support recipient to sue for back-dated (or “retro-active”) payments. In Ontario, a child-support payor can be ordered to pay retro-active child support for the past three years and even in some cases, retro-active child support can go past three years where the payor has acted in a blameworthy way. For example, if the payor parent hid their financial information from the other parent.

DO I NEED TO GO TO COURT TO GET CHILD SUPPORT?
Not necessarily. Parents can attend mediation together, whereby they discuss the Child Support Guidelines, their needs and the best interests of the child to create an agreement on child support. If parents agree on the amount of child support, they can document the amount of child support and the pay schedule in a separation agreement.

If parents cannot agree on child support, then they must go to arbitration (for an arbitral award) or court (for a court order) where a third party can make a decision on their behalf. It is always best to start with mediation because of all of the options available, it can be the most cost-effective, timely and most importantly, parents have the most control over the outcome.

by
Eva Iole DiGiammarino
Hons BA, JD, ADR Cert.

Co-Parenting After Adultery?

Actors Ben Affleck and Jennifer Garner were married June 29th, 2005 and separated in June 2015; they share three children ages 13, 9 and 6. The couple allegedly split due to Affleck’s numerous extra-marital affairs. Affleck and Garner are still in the divorce process; this week, the couple was in the headlines because (allegedly) Garner does not want Affleck’s current partner, Lindsay Shookus, around the children, as she is one of the women with whom Affleck had an extra-marital affair.

ADULTERY IN ONTARIO: CAN YOU LOSE CUSTODY IF YOU HAD AN AFFAIR?

The short answer is, generally, no. Past conduct of a parent is irrelevant in determining custody/access unless that conduct impacts their effectiveness to parent the child (section 24(3) of the Children’s Law Reform Act).

ADULTERY IN ONTARIO: CAN YOU KEEP YOUR EX’S (NEW) PARTNER (FROM AN AFFAIR) AWAY FROM YOUR CHILDREN?

The short answer is, generally, no. Unless there are concerns that your child’s safety is (or could reasonably be) in danger or that their needs will (or may) not be met by your partner or their new partner, then there are no legal grounds from barring your ex’s new partner from establishing a relationship with your children – even if your ex had an extra-marital affair with their current partner.

ADULTERY IN ONTARIO: HOW CAN WE MOVE ON AND CO-PARENT?

Adultery can wreak havoc on the stability and cohesion of a family unit. Typically, the bonds of trust are shattered and the baggage of emotional pain piles up. It is not uncommon for hurt, resentment and anger to set it in and, for many, it is extremely difficult to revive any semblance of a relationship. It is not uncommon, for adultery to result in separation and divorce. When adultery leads to separation/divorce, family mediation can help the couple learn how to co-parent by addressing the infidelity and their emotions surrounding it, and establish positive communication techniques.

CAN WE MEDIATE? 

Family Mediation is a voluntary process where a trained professional (a mediator) helps (ex)-partners communicate/negotiate in a productive and safe way. Typically, (ex)-partners who turn to mediation can, with the assistance of a mediator, negotiate an agreement regarding property division, support & child custody. However, unlike other dispute resolution processes such as Court or Arbitration, the parties to a mediation are not limited to only discussing legal matters. Emotional issues, such as those which stem from adultery, can impact how one partner feels about legal issues such as custody issues (as exemplified in the Affleck/Garner case) and it is well acknowledged among mediators, that the emotional issues underlying one’s position must be worked through for a mutually-satisfactory settlement to be reached.

At Family Mediation and Resources, our mediators have extensive experience working with families who are separating/divorcing after adultery. Our co-mediation model, which has a family lawyer and a mental health professional mediating together, allows (ex)-partners to address emotional issues and learn how to establish a positive co-parenting relationship going forward.

About the author (Eva DiGiammarino)
Eva DiGiammarino is a Family Mediator and a Lawyer. Eva volunteers with Family Mediation & Resources and is passionate about educating families about the law and their options to resolve their matters outside of the court.

 

Can’t afford a lawyer, but still need legal help? Consider unbundled services!

Think about whether you want to hire a lawyer who offers unbundled services. This means you can hire them to help with a certain part of your legal problem only. For example, to help you prepare your court documents.

This option is useful if you can’t afford to hire a lawyer to help with the whole legal problem. Or for example, if you hired a lawyer to help with your problem, but now don’t have enough money left to keep paying them. Unbundled services can also be called limited scope services, unbundled legal services, or legal coaching.

 

A lawyer that offers unbundled services usually divides all the things they would usually do for a client into smaller, separate steps or items. You can hire them to only do the things that you decide you need the most help with.

 

Unbundled services can be:
• Legal advice: meeting with a lawyer to get advice on what your legal options are
• Preparing documents: a lawyer prepares your documents, for example, a court application or a separation agreement
• Appearances: a lawyer represents you in legal situations, for example, at a court hearing, or at a case conference
• Coaching: a lawyer guides you through the court process, or explains how to submit evidence
Lawyers who offer unbundled services usually charge a flat fee. You may have to pay this fee before they help you. Usually you don’t have to pay any other deposit or retainer.
Some lawyers have websites that say if they offer “unbundled” or “limited scope” services. Others do not, but if you ask them, they may be willing to offer it to you.”

[Retrieved from
: https://stepstojustice.ca/common-question-step/1-find-lawyer]

“Bring her to the negotiating table on her knees”

Once I realized that my spouse and I were going to separate, I contacted a family lawyer to assist and to help guide me through the process. The first lawyer that I saw started by working on a plan to “cut off this and cut off that” and was adamant that I do everything in my power to hurt my partner financially and “bring her to the negotiating table on her knees”. The anger and aggression emanating from this individual actually scared me and I realized that this was not the right lawyer for me… I was scared and confused enough without looking for more conflict.

The next attorney that I contacted was helpful in arranging a separation agreement, but kept asking for meetings with myself and my (now) ex-wife to review the terms and firm up the agreement so that it could serve as the template for a divorce agreement. This process took over 2 years and several thousand dollars and at the end of this I was absolutely no further ahead in negotiating an agreement.

I then contacted a family lawyer who had helped a friend with a “high conflict divorce”. My divorce proceedings were not “high conflict”, and my ex-wife and I were able to meet and verbally agree to terms for the divorce several times. However, after we had agreed between ourselves to terms, the agreement was sent to one of our lawyers to write up and ensure that all was legal and acceptable. The agreement that came back from the lawyers, either hers or mine, was never what we had agreed to between ourselves and materially changed almost every element of the agreement…. I started to realize that we were never going to settle this with lawyers who were eager to continue to alter our agreed upon terms and kept circling back to “having our day and kicking some butt” in family court. I was now several years separated and had spent over fifteen thousand on legal fees without any progress.

With the help of mediators in the community, we were finally able to agree to divorce terms and find lawyers who were not pushing us into a courtroom and we were able to finalize a divorce agreement on the terms we had agreed upon several years earlier but could never seem to get either of our attorney’s to write into a legal document.

My experience with the attorneys that I had worked with was that my wishes and my desire to ensure the comfort and security of my children was always secondary to the lawyer’s desire to get into a courtroom and battle it out. I never wanted that; the last several years had been painful and expensive enough. While their intent may have been to “protect my interests”, the reality was that I was spending time and money on a process that wasn’t what I wanted and that was, ultimately, unsuccessful. Breaking the cycle of endless letters and office visits and just working on what we both wanted was the key to a mutually acceptable agreement that allowed us both to move on with our lives and put my focus on what was truly important to me and not my attorney.

Author: John A.

A Father’s Story

In 1987 my wife decided to leave…

We had 3 children. There were a number of reasons, and through talking it out with her we decided it was best for me to have full custody of the children, with her getting weekend and summer visitation. Initially, we involved lawyers which were expensive and made matters worse. By coming to an agreement ourselves, it did make things easier, although it was still very hard. There were no resources to turn to to get help and advice. We basically did it on our own.

Of course, this was nothing compared to becoming a single dad. I was really on my own except for one other single dad. I wasn’t raised to be the full-time parent and to carry a career. But, I did manage to make it through and did alright.

I eventually went on to be an online advisor for single parents and for those separating and divorcing, trying to help other single parents, especially dads. It came in handy when I went through my second divorce having a fourth child.

Workgroups and seminars such as the one the Family Mediation and Resource Centre are offering would have been a valuable and welcome resource back then. Surprisingly, being even needed more today, these types of resources are paramount for divorced and single dads.

If I could offer one piece of advice, it is make every decision based on what is best for the children. What is best for the children, in most cases, is to keep their lives as normal as possible, know that they are not to blame, and make sure they have equal and open access to both parents.

Rob

Check out our FREE events and groups:

Divorced or Separated Dads Group
Family Law Information Session (FLIS) 

Why a Peer Group for Divorced Dads?

While going through divorce, didn’t you always want a well-informed buddy who you can talk, gather information and plan ahead with?

This Divorced Dads Group was motivated by the notable lack of supports for dads experiencing divorce or separation. Its premise is that dads are equally important in their children’s lives and, just like moms or anyone experiencing divorce, dads also need help navigating through all challenges that separation comes with.
This group welcomes dads who have managed to successfully move past their divorce – to share their experience and help others.

Each dad needs different things:

  • Some dads need to share their experiences in a safe space
  • Some dads need to know that they’re not alone during this tough time
  • Some dads need more information about community resources
  • Some dads need to learn of different options to deal with their divorce
  • Some dads need to be heard and not judged
  • Some dads need to bounce ideas around
  • Some dads need to form positive relationships with other like-minded dads
  • Some dads simply need to share a laughter with others who get what he’s going through

The reality is that, sometimes, we all need support. And, you’d be surprised at how much well-informed “strangers” may actually support you more than the people you know.

Dads Peer Group

Fathering during and after divorce or separation – you’re not alone.

Why Join A Peer Group?

Everyone needs support when things get tough; some dads feel isolated and need to connect with other fathers; some need information or new tools; and others simply need to share a laugh with like-minded dads.

The idea is for fathers to have a space where they can share experiences, challenges and information with other dads. It provides opportunities for brainstorming, problem-solving and developing effective ways of dealing with post-separation.

Do I need to come to every group session?

While we welcome attendance at any session,  we recommend that you attend as many sessions as possible to maximize support and build a solid foundation for your post-separation life. There will also be guest speakers and a Holiday Party!

As our space is limited, we do want you to RSVP by sending a quick email to fmrcentre@gmail.com or calling our toll-free at 877-297-3312.

What is the format?

Each week, the group will be led by a peer dad, through a variety of topics. The dad has professional and personal experience with divorce, and is committed to supporting other fathers.

To accommodate diverse topics as those arise, we will not follow a strict curriculum. We will, however, attempt to cover the following discussions:

  • Effects of divorce on children and adults
  • Being a successful dad
  • Coping with divorce or separation
  • Having a quality relationship with children
  • Making co-parenting work
  • Ask a Lawyer: Legal Issues (guest speaker)
  • Avoiding or de-escalating conflict
  • Parenting Skills and Strategies
  • Benefits of fathering to children
  • When co-parenting is not successful
  • Complications of re-partnering or new relationships
  • Controlling emotions
  • Taking the high road for the sake of the children
  • Behaviours to avoid
  • Coping with a new stepfather
  • Ask a dad who’s been there: A dad’s 10-year legal battle (guest speaker)
  • Behaviours that have been shown to create positive outcomes
  • Communication and working as a team
  • Working through the loss of marriage
  • Talking to children about divorce or separation
  • Ask a Divorce Financial Expert: Financial Issues (guest speaker)
  • The benefits of divorce and formulating appropriate supports
  • Creating an effective parenting plan
  • How to handle holidays
  • Managing conflict within the co-parenting relationship
  • Holiday Party

Because men need support too

Thursdays from 6:30pm to 8:30pm
From May 24 to November 15, 2018
at Ajax Public Library